古罗马琉璃泪壶——爱之泪,穿越千年化成蜜,世间最凄美的收集眼泪的玻璃瓶

高约5 cm×底部直径约4 cm

重约23.7g

罗马帝国,公元1/3世纪

状况良好

出处:销售商保证以合法方式获得该藏品(东京,私人收藏)

碧绿色玻璃(琉璃)器,瓶身风化层浅,有不均匀小气泡。口沿轻薄,瓶口无伤,底部有吹管断料形成的不规则渣口。自然光线下整体呈现七彩蛤蜊光,熠熠生辉。琉璃易碎,出土时大多破裂,品相完整者弥足珍贵。

在希腊和罗马的古墓中发现的小玻璃瓶,被早期学者浪漫地将其命名为泪壶(tear catcher)或泪瓶(lachrymatory bottle)。古代人利用其收集眼泪的想法似乎是民间传说,但所有人都爱上了这个传说中诗意的自负。

古罗马时期(公元前后)的葬礼上很罕见的陪葬品——瓶口细长,壶身小巧的玻璃制“泪壶”,瓶子里装的是死者恋人和家属的眼泪。丧礼进行过程中,将哭丧者的眼泪收集起来,最后一起下葬,眼泪越多代表对死者的敬爱越多,据说也雇用专业哭丧女在坟前哭泣,以显示死者受人敬爱。

一位化妆品历史学家或一位玻璃专家可以在30秒内告诉客户这些瓶子不是伪造的赝品,所有人终将发现真理已然存在,那时我们每个人都可以选择自己的信念。

这种习俗在19世纪末的维多利亚时代得以重现,玻璃匠人将盛满泪水的容器进行装饰和加工,增强了收集“失去所爱之人的悲伤”习俗的仪式感。与此同时,还出现了一种新说法:“瓶中泪水蒸发殆尽之际,才是服丧终结之时”。

罗马玻璃,指罗马帝国期间(公元前27年~公元395年)所制作的玻璃器总称。其涵盖的范围相当广,东到叙利亚,西达西班牙,南至埃及,北抵日耳曼;内容种类多样,举凡简单的日用品到精致的工艺品都有,例如杯、盘、壶、瓶、几乎是现今使用的所有玻璃制品。

当时由于罗马帝国的强盛,使许多技艺高超的工匠定居于城市,加上吹制玻璃技术的发明,使原来的单件制作得以大量生产,玻璃制品在此时全面进入庶民阶级的日常生活中,这也让罗马的玻璃工艺获得长足进展,并可和当时的陶器工艺并驾齐驱。

毫无疑问,罗马在地中海世界中的统治地位,即其在政治,军事和经济方面的统治地位,是吸引熟练工匠前来罗马的重要因素。但同样重要的是,罗马工业的建立离不开吹玻璃的发明。这项发明革新了古代玻璃的生产方式,使其与其他主要工业(如陶器和金属器皿)处于同等水平。吹玻璃使工匠可以制作比以前更多的形状。结合玻璃固有的吸引力,这种适应性鼓励人们改变口味和习惯,例如玻璃杯迅速取代了陶器。

在罗马第一任皇帝奥古斯都(Augustus)统治期间(公元前27-公元14年),随着陶器和纺织制造等几大有效产业的发展,玻璃制造工艺从东方被采用并发展成为一种工业,逐渐在罗马普及。至一世纪中叶,玻璃在罗马国内市场上已与陶器相媲美。被用于餐具和存储容器,以保存从腌制鱼到精细香水的所有物品。

玻璃成为罗马人每天日常活动中的重要物品,清晨女佣将香精乳液涂在女主人身上,为她的社交活动做准备。傍晚奴隶用玻璃器皿盛放食物、水果和酒,摆放到餐桌上。玻璃也是罗马葬礼中重要的陪葬品,罗马人习惯在坟墓中陈设各种家庭物品,以增加来世的舒适感。

古代玻璃掩埋于地下数千年之久,内部杂质受时间和环境影响变质,氧化后形成七彩包浆,色彩缤纷,绚丽夺目,世称罗马玻璃,极其罕见贵重。由于存世完整者罕见,现在欧美日许多珠宝设计师,会将出土的罗马玻璃碎片与金银等贵金属镶嵌结合,制造成独具特色的新派古典首饰。

罗马玻璃迎光侧视,可见五光十色,此即所谓七彩蛤蜊光,是器物穿越千年后釉面自然氧化的结果。蛤蜊光的反应除与制作配方息息相关外,还和储藏环境有关。通常而言,传世琉璃难见蛤蜊光,出土品相对多见,但也仅相对传世品而言。蛤蜊光形成原因主要在于氧化程度,埋藏环境如果无酸,固难形成彩色包浆。

琉璃的斑驳蛤光,在灯光下具有宝石无法比拟的光艳,高古琉璃器具有线条、造型、颜色三美,需要静静品味。线条是感受视觉的启发,造型是透视艺术的焦点,颜色则是技术融合的结晶。

Ancient Roman glass Lachrymatory(tear bottle)

Size: 5×4cm

Material: glass.

Date: Roman, 1st/3rd century A.D.

Origine: Roman empire.

Condition: good condition

Acquired: Tokyo, private collection

Provenance:The Supplier warrants that is has obtained this lot in a legal manner.

Small glass bottles were often found in Greek and Roman tombs, early scholars romantically dubbed them lachrymatories or tear bottles. The idea that people were collecting tears in them seemed like folklore. fell in love with the poetical conceit as much as anyone else.

A cosmetic historian or a  glass expert could have told a customer in 30 seconds  those bottles are not lachrymatories ,that the scientific truth will be uncovered eventually (it already has), until then, each of us can choose our own belief.

Doubtless Rome’semergence as the dominant political, military, and economic power in theMediterranean world was a major factor in attracting skilled craftsmen to setup workshops in the city, but equally important was the fact that theestablishment of the Roman industry roughly coincided with the invention ofglassblowing.

This inventionrevolutionized ancient glass production, putting it on a par with the other majorindustries, such as that of pottery and metalwares (as 20.49.2-12). Likewise, glassblowing allowed craftsmen tomake a much greater variety of shapes than before. Combined with the inherent attractivenessof glass—it is nonporous, translucent (if not transparent), and odorless—thisadaptability encouraged people to change their tastes and habits, so that, forexample, glass drinking cups rapidly supplanted pottery equivalents.

During the reign of Rome’s firstemperor, Augustus (27 B.C.-A.D. 14), as several well-established industriessuch as pottery- and textile-making were being expanded, the craft ofglassmaking was adopted from the East, turned into an industry, and adapted toRoman taste. By the mid-first century A.D.glass rivaled pottery in the domestic marketplace.

It was used fortableware and storage containers to hold everything from preserved fish to fineperfumes. Glass featured strongly in the Romandaily routine, from the early morning, when maids would apply perfumed lotionsto their mistress in preparation for her social rounds, to the late afternoon,when slaves would bring platters of food.

bowls of fruit, and jugs of wine—allof glass—to the supper table. And there was a place for glass even in Romanfunerary ritual, because it was custom to include all manner of domesticitems among the grave furnishings, to add comfort to the afterlife.

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投稿者:

株式会社明月

株式会社明月2017年创立,持有包括书籍商许可(東京公安委員会登録番号:305491805941),特定国際種事業者(事業者番号:S-3-13-31612)在内的日本国合法资质,是一家追求情怀、文化和品位的公司。专门发掘各种不宜发掘的艺术品,包括但不限于各种少儿不宜的情色艺术。

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